Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Parents post pictures


Family leave. Child care assistance.  Both Presidential candidates erroneously promise it.  Why are we the only modern country in the world that doesn't have it?  Ask Congress!  That's where it has to come from.



Ransomware.  They hacked into everything and know everything about me.  The embarrassing thing is after digesting the information they are only demanding $6.50.  The police laughed.


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WOMAN CLAIMS POLICE BRUTALITY: 'I JUST COULDN'T STOP CRYING. I WAS IN PAIN. I COULDN'T WALK'




A Houston woman alleges police brutality after an incident at a Galveston bar.

Kaylie Gentry has filed a federal lawsuit claiming that she was attacked by a uniformed Galveston police officer while she was at "Tsunami's," a bar on the Strand on February 6th.


At 1:50am, she says, the officer ordered her to leave. When she tried to tell him she was waiting for a friend so they could leave together, she claims he picked her up and threw her to the ground.

"I just couldn't stop crying. I was in pain. I couldn't walk," said Gentry.

She insists she was sober and that she was attacked without provocation or probable cause.

"I just remember screaming. How could you do this to me?" she said.

She knew immediately she couldn't walk. X-rays later revealed the force of the impact pried her tibia and fibula apart and also caused a break in her fibula.

"This is a terrible, terrible use of excessive force," said Gentry's attorney Randall Kallinen.

Gentry was not arrested or charged with any crime. In fact no police report was taken and she says the officer disappeared following the incident.

After two surgeries she now has a permanent metal plate and a half dozen screws in her leg. She's a nurse so she couldn't work during rehab. After months of therapy she went back to work just last month. The pain persists.

She says she can't dance anymore or do yoga without feeling it. Gentry says it was necessary to file a federal suit because she never heard anything back after filing a complaint in March with the Galveston Police Department.

"Justice. I want justice to be served. He needs to be accountable just like any other citizen would. Just like if any other guy or woman broken my leg," she said.

A spokesperson for the city of Galveston says our inquiry about this claim is the first they've heard about this. They can find no police record of the incident or any complaint.



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This Is How Criticism Improves Your Photography




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Photography / Tips and Solutions

10 Essential Tips for Night Photography

 59 1,413   
Making pictures by night is a curious practice. While specialists of this subject embrace it as a deep-seated passion and have a never-ending quest for technical and creative advancement, those more familiar with daytime photography are often unaware that tried and true photography rules often need to be adapted or even overlooked at night. With this in mind, consider the following tips the next time you venture out in the darkness, to help you to adapt.

1. Take a Chance and Explore the Unknown

What’s my exposure time? This is the number one question asked by a night photography novice setting up his or her camera for the first time. A basic understanding of the functions of aperture and shutter speed take on mind-expanding dimensions at night, when stopping down your aperture can turn street lights into starbursts and setting your shutter speed to bulb offers you the ability to capture the unseen. Contrary to the view of photography as an exact science, nocturnal image making provides an opportunity to experiment, explore, play, and have fun. So, instead of freezing up and following someone else’s exposure suggestions by rote, explore all the variables at your fingertips with your own camera. Then, make this into a veritable learning experience by noting down your exposure settings in writing (or audio) so you can study the results after downloading your files. To economize on power when taking notes, keep things simple and stow a small waterproof notepad and pen in your camera bag or coat pocket.
Moving cars become ribbons of light in this long-exposure image, which also displays the variety of color temperatures in the artificially lit apartment windows and predominantly sodium vapor street lights.
 
Devoting time to this effort will help you to determine what worked best so you can incorporate the same exposure strategies in future shoots. In the words of noted night photography author Lance Keimig, “There are no bad exposures at night, only different ones!”

2. Use High ISO Testing as an Exposure Guide

If you’re still unsure about how to determine exposures from scratch, use a trick called High ISO Testing as your guide. Here’s how it works. For each successive increase of your ISO dial and full stop in opening the aperture notch of your lens, your subsequent exposure time will be cut in half. Let’s say you boosted your ISO to 6400—a 6x difference from ISO 100—and fully opened your aperture to f/2.0—increasing the amount of light from a mid-range setting of f/8.0. While these settings will potentially yield an image with unappealing contrast, increased grain and limited depth of field, you can save valuable time by shooting an exposure bracket to identify a well exposed histogram at these settings. Let’s say the ideal histogram for this scene corresponds with a shutter speed of 4 seconds. You can then do the math to calculate the required exposure time for the same scene captured at ISO 100 and f/8, which would be a total of 32 minutes.
To determine exposure options efficiently for this long-exposure cityscape, I made a High ISO test at ISO 6400 with the lens closed down to f/16 (left-hand frame), which yielded a decent histogram at 15 seconds. I then calculated the exposure difference needed to capture the same scene at ISO 100  (a 6x difference from 6400 ISO). After adjusting the ISO, I made an 8-minute exposure (right-hand frame), which gave me a very similar histogram as the first exposure, yet with improved acuity and grain. Images © Jill Waterman 
 
In addition to being an efficient way to calculate exposure, doing test shots at high ISOs is also helpful for quickly evaluating your framing and basic details of the image composition. Most important—when using this method, make sure to change your ISO and aperture back to the desired settings after you’ve finished calculations, otherwise you’ll find yourself with a final image that is grossly overexposed, yet took more than 30 minutes to make.

3. Learn & Memorize Gear Functions in Advance

Locating that pesky button or dial to change camera settings or pull up a menu is much more challenging at night, not to mention locating the accessories buried in your camera bag! Low light shooting makes it even more essential to study your camera manual to memorize how your gear functions and locate access points for essential dials and menu options before you go out into the darkness. When photographing at night, you should be shooting with your camera and lens in manual mode. If you’ll be breaking new ground with this, get comfortable with your gear’s manual functions under low pressure circumstances, so you can act with calm efficiency when conditions are less than ideal. One item I always rely on in low light is a basic magnifying light, which serves the double purpose of casting a concentrated beam of light where I need it and magnifying the text of tiny dials or digital readouts, so I don’t need to pull out my reading glasses.
Keep a magnifying light handy and you won't have to fumble around in the dark hunting for your reading glasses when you need to make fine adjustments to your equipment.
 

4. Know your Destination and Scout it in Advance

One challenging repercussion to low-light shooting is that everything in sight takes on an otherworldly appeal, which can complicate attempts to pinpoint one specific composition or picture subject. To avoid this dilemma, as well as to prepare yourself for unexpected surprises, you should familiarize yourself with your destination, ideally by scouting the site in advance. Plan to arrive at your location before sunset and take your time setting up, while also gaining the advantage of making pictures during magic hour lighting. This will add to your understanding of how changing light conditions can impact a scene.
Jumpstart your night photography by arriving on site before sunset. Not only will you be able to photograph the magical effects of sunset and twilight, you’ll get a better sense of the landscape and how to move around in the location, minimizing the risk of accidents in the dark and injury to yourself or your gear.
 
In addition to scouting your location directly, you can also let your computer help out during a remote scouting session. Photo sharing websites such as Flickr are readily searchable by descriptive terms, or even specific GPS coordinates. Scrolling through the results from other photographers can provide innumerable tips about site conditions, camera angles and much more.
Lastly, consider bringing along a digital compass to log GPS data, as well as to determine your orientation in relation to the heavens. This can prove critical when shooting star trail images, especially if you want to make images of star trails encircling the North Star.

Where's Polaris? A compass will keep you oriented, especially useful for photographing star trails.
 

5. Adapt your Image Capture to Address High Contrast Levels and Color Casts

Night photography often involves working in situations with extremely high contrast and widely ranging colorcasts. This makes it particularly important to shoot in RAW file format, for greater leeway in controlling contrast and white balance in postproduction.
For optimum control of color, you can manually set your camera’s white balance to a specific Kelvin temperature. This can be particularly useful if you’re looking to achieve the cool blue tungsten hue (3200K) that many people associate with nocturnal images. Your camera also has white balance presets for various lighting conditions, as well as an auto white balance option. Auto white balance is quick and convenient, but this setting functions within a limited range and can be fooled by mixed lighting conditions or the predominance of one color in a scene.
Keimig exposed this mixed-lighting scene for 10 seconds at ISO 400, using Nikon’s Fluorescent 1 (sodium vapor) white balance setting. He made two adjustments to the white balance in post: (left) balanced for the sodium vapor lights in the scene by clicking on a neutral area of the concrete at left of the smoke stack, and (right) balanced for the metal halide light source by clicking on a neutral area of the light emanating from the building at back right. He prefers the version on the left. Images © Lance Keimig  
 
Mixed lighting situations—where artificial lights of different color temperatures are adjacent in a scene—are extremely common at night. These can be difficult to identify visually and nearly impossible to control 100 percent. Under these conditions, decisions must be made about which color cast to neutralize and how the neutralization of a dominant or distracting color cast will shift colors from competing lights. In recent years, many cities have made strides to replace traditional sodium-vapor streetlights (which exude a yellow-orange color cast) with more energy-efficient LED lighting. This produces a clearer, whiter light—thereby simplifying the issue of color casts, while simultaneously reducing opportunities for night photographers to explore creative compositions that highlight mixed light.

6. Plan for a Sturdy Shooting Platform to Avoid Vibration of All Types

Another key concern when photographing at night is camera vibration as a result of long exposure times. The importance of a sturdy tripod cannot be underestimated in such circumstances. While the bulk and unwieldiness of working on a tripod can take some getting used to, it is essential for image clarity at night. This can also offer a big advantage when perfecting composition, as well as for general mindfulness of your actions. The use of a tripod generally goes hand-in-hand with aremote or cabled shutter release, or your camera’s mirror lock-up function (which you can find in the Custom Functions menu).
Using a tripod and cabled shutter release at night is essential for sharp exposures, yet equally important in situations such as this is avoiding vibrations on the metal walkway. The very faint vertical lines on the pathway indicate the ghosting of a pedestrian who passed through the frame during the exposure. Heavy footsteps or other forms of vibration could shake the legs of a flimsy tripod enough to cause camera shake. Image © Jill Waterman 
Keep in mind that issues with vibration can extend well beyond direct contact between you and your camera. Attention should be given to potential vibration caused by unsecured accessories such as camera straps, cable releases or loose tripod connections, and even environmental interference from passing footsteps, automobile traffic or the rumbling of underground transport. Every little bit counts towards getting maximum stability.

7. Condition Your Gear to the Outside Environment

A pesky external condition that’s likely to hamper every night photographer on occasion is the occurrence of lens fog. This can be caused by moving gear from dry cold to warm, humid conditions, or it can occur due to changes in temperature and humidity levels—such as when the temperature nears the dew point. Accumulating moisture can totally interfere with or block light passing through the lens, which can result in soft, blurry images or frames that register no exposure at all. This can be particularly frustrating when it occurs in the process of a long exposure.
Don’t underestimate the importance of acclimating your gear to outside conditions, especially when shooting long exposures at night. Changes in temperature and humidity, either from atmospheric changes that build in a location over time or moving from a location with different relative levels, can fog your lenses and seriously hamper or even prevent your photography efforts.
 
In conditions that are prone to lens fog, adding a clear filter can protect the optical glass from direct exposure to moisture, however this may cause ghosting or flare in an image if lights are present in the scene. A lens hood can also help reduce moisture build-up. Other methods to prevent lens fog involve heating the lens to make it warmer than the dew point.  Astronomy buffs use portable, electric heating devices to keep telescope optics free of moisture. Another possibility is to attach portable hand warmers to the lens barrel. In these situations, it’s advisable to attach the heating device before the lens fogs up, since it can be time consuming and difficult to eliminate moisture that has already condensed.
Without ignoring proper safety measures, you can also circumvent this issue by keeping your camera gear in an environment similar to where you will be working for several hours in advance of a shoot. This will allow gear to acclimate to existing temperature and humidity levels, and will keep your glass fog-free until the levels change.

8. Dress for Success in all Conditions—Winter, Water, and Bug-Proof Yourself and Your Gear

Proper wardrobe is a key concern when photographing at night. Plunging temperatures or sudden weather inversions can quickly turn an enjoyable evening into an endurance test for the unprepared, even in temperate climates. Dress in thin layers that you can add or subtract as outside conditions change, and bring along items to keep everything warm, dry and comfortable—from your core to your extremities to your gear.
It was well below freezing in Prospect Park when Vorenkamp captured this image of fellow night photographer Gabriel Biderman in the snow. Spending hours outside shooting long exposures at night makes it essential to bundle up in warm clothing. Even in non-frigid conditions, your extremities can get painfully cold when outside for hours on end. In these circumstances, hand and foot warmers can really pay off. Image © Todd Vorenkamp 
 
Increasingly popular in recent years, gloves with pullback fingertips offer substantial protection while being a practical way to access camera controls in cold climates. A more moderate option for those who have a hard time working encumbered are lightweight glove liners, which protect hands from wind and weather and can be coupled with heavy gloves or mittens in extreme climates.
Gloves with peel-back fingertips give you more dexterity for fine-tuning camera settings without having to remove your glove.
 
Cold or wet conditions are not the only concerns facing intrepid night photographers. Insects can be nearly invisible and are an extremely hard to predict nuisance with lasting after-effects. Bug spray can help, but if you’ll be venturing into buggy territory, consider arming yourself with a bug jacket.

9. Pack Extra Power and Plan for Calamity

Making long exposures for hours at a time can drain your battery quicker than you think, so make sure to bring plenty of back-up power for cameras and other electronic gear that require batteries to function. You can also conserve power by turning off your camera’s Live View function and LCD display. If you’re shooting on a tripod turn off the Image Stabilization as well.
Making long exposures at night is especially taxing on camera batteries, and adding frigid temperatures to the mix can cause batteries to deplete at many times the normal speed. In addition to having plenty of extra batteries on hand to shoot with (and keeping them warm!), disabling the electronic controls on your camera such as Live View, the LCD screen, or image stabilization can also help maximize battery life.
 
Extreme cold also has a tremendous impact on battery drain. If carrying multiple packs in cold weather, keep extra batteries warm by placing them in interior pockets or insulating them with hand warmers. If a battery becomes exhausted by the cold, warming it up may provide a temporary revival of power, allowing you to fire another few shots.
If you’re shooting in a remote location and have traveled there by car, you can recharge batteries using your car battery as a generator, or better yet, bring along a portable generator to ensure you don’t tax your car battery to the point of exhaustion. And, as an added safety precaution, inform friends or family about your shooting destination and overall plans, then follow up to let them know you’ve returned safely, especially if you’re working alone.

10. Don’t be a Couch Potato, Go Out and Give it a Try

As the adage goes, you can’t be successful at something if you don’t first apply yourself. This is particularly applicable to night photography, when the motivation to gear up and go into the darkness after a full day of work or other pursuits can be easily foiled by inertia.
An overnight display of historic helicopters provided the motivation for this once-in-a-lifetime night shoot. Preparing a list of potential locations, celestial, atmospheric or weather phenomena, cultural activities, and special events to target for nocturnal photo excursions can help you get out the door with your gear. Image © Jill Waterman
 
Veteran night photographers use a number of different strategies to kick-start their motivation—from making a commitment to shoot during particular astronomical conditions such as a full moon, high or low tide, to capturing weather events such as fog, mist, or snow. While the idea of going out with your camera during inclement weather seems less than appealing, the aesthetic results from these types of conditions can pay off in spades.
You can also consider planning a group expedition with one or more cohorts. This can yield benefits far exceeding the simple matter of accountability in getting you out the door. There is both safety and camaraderie in numbers, attributes that can be especially important in the still of the night. The practice of night photography is rich with community engagement. At the end of the day, connecting with—and learning from—like-minded colleagues, is what night photography is all about.
Thank you for joining our journey into night photography! For more Visualizing the Night content, please click here: Visualizing The Night and share your enthusiasm for the art below in the comments section or reach out to us on social media using #visualizethenight. Thanks for reading!
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An image of the Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde by Andreas F. Borchert
In 1811, a young lawyer and journalist named Henry Brackenridge found the ruins of an ancient city near St. Louis. 
At the time, St. Louis was a small, young city that served as the gateway to the land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. Americans knew little about the new territory, and Brackenridge was struck by the size of the ruins. “If the city of Philadelphia and its environs were deserted,” he wrote, “there would not be more numerous traces of human existence.” 
As archaeologist Timothy Pauketat has written, Brackenridge was standing on the site of what was once the Grand Plaza of Cahokia, a city inhabited in 1250 by some ten to twenty thousand Native Americans. Brackenridge believed he’d made a great discovery. He did not see ancient stone walls or worn foundations. Instead he marveled at the pattern of raised earth that resembled an urban grid, human bones, and mounds of soil formed into dozens of grassy pyramids up to 100 feet tall. 
“I was struck with a degree of astonishment,” Brackenridge recalled, “not unlike that which is experienced in contemplating the Egyptian pyramids.”
But the world ignored Brackenridge’s discovery, and Americans have not treated what Dr. Pauketat calls “Ancient America’s great city on the Mississippi” with reverence. Four-lane roads and highways surround and bisect Cahokia, the sprawl of East St. Louis covers more of the ancient site, and many of the earthen pyramids have been scraped away to use as infill. 
Cahokia has since been dignified with a state park and visitors center, but it’s not well known outside of Illinois and Missouri. It hardly attracts the number of visitors you’d expect for America’s version of the pyramids and the ruins of the country’s greatest, ancient city. 
The same is true of impressive and important American Indian sites like the pueblos of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and the pre-historic earthworks of Poverty Point in Louisiana. 
Americans travel to Machu Picchu, Petra, Troy, and Angkor Wat. So why do so few visit America’s own ruins?
The New World: A Crowded Place
The concept of tourists flockingto American Indian archeological sites may seem strange if you learned in school—like this author did—that America was sparsely inhabited wilderness before Europeans arrived. 
Through the 1950s, this was the consensus in academia. As journalist Charles C. Mann eloquently explains in 1491, a sweeping history of the Americas up to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the most commonly cited estimate of North America’s population in 1491 was 1.15 million. That’s about the population of modern-day Rhode Island.
Yet early European colonists discovered that the areas they intended to settle were densely populated. When colonists like John Smith (of Pocahontas fame) established Jamestown, they became the neighbors of 14,000 Native Americans. As Mann writes, “The English were like the last people moving into a subdivision—they ended up with the least desirable property. Their chosen site was marshy, mosquito-ridden, and without fresh water.”
The steps down from Cahokia's largest earthwork, Monks Mound, show how roadways bisect the site of Cahokia. Photo credit: Daniel X. O'Neil
Similarly, Mann notes that a French soldier exploring Cape Cod in 1605 decided that the area was too well settled to build a French base. And when Hernando de Soto pillaged his way through the American Southeast in 1539, his Spanish force regularly encountered thousands of Indian warriors and saw areas “very well peopled with large towns."
The reason that Europeans could, decades later, settle unoccupied lands was that their predecessors had unleashed smallpox, bubonic plague, and the measles in the Americas. By living in close contact with domesticated animals like pigs and cows, residents of the Old World had incubated all sorts of diseases, which they then developed resistances to. The New World had few domesticated animals and no resistance to the dozens of diseases that appeared at once. When colonization began in earnest, European settlers found skeletons and abandoned villages. 
This is part of the common understanding of American history. (Although in the 1600s and 1700s, many Europeans looked at the deaths as divine providence rather than tragedy.) But in the 1960s and 1970s, revisionist historians argued that the death toll—and therefore America’s pre-Columbian population—had been severely underestimated. Some believed that up to 18 million people lived in North America in 1491; a more conservative figure was seven million.
According to archaeologist Timothy Pauketat, seven million remains a common estimate. “The numbers many conservative archaeologists would give would be much lower, all the way down to one million,” he explains over email. “[But that’s] way too low.”
Once you add in revised estimates of the population of South America, the idea that Christopher Columbus “discovered” a “New World” appears even more absurd. 
“Perhaps one human being in five was a native of the Americas,” James Wilson writes in The Earth Shall Weep, which uses the seven million estimate for the population of North America. “In 1492, the western hemisphere was larger, richer and more populous than Europe." 
America’s First Great City
The racist and ideologically convenient views held by European colonists of Native Americans as small, simple groups of people influenced interpretations of North American history.
When Americans did notice Cahokia’s ruins, most of them assumed that Indians could not have made them. They theorized that Vikings, Greeks, or Egyptians built the mounds; Thomas Jefferson advised Lewis and Clark to look for white, Welsh-speaking Indians who raised the pyramids. Even later archeologists struggled to imagine an Indian city. 
That’s no longer the case. Dr. George Milner, who has excavated in Cahokia, believes that around 3,000 to 8,000 people lived in the city—a figure he calls “very respectable for a pre-industrial city… On a worldwide basis, that’s impressive.” 
Dr. Timothy Pauketat, an archeologist who wrote a book about Cahokia, believes the city was home to over 10,000 people in 1250, with more Cahokians living on the surrounding farmland. If that’s the case, Cahokia was larger than London. 
Cahokia is mysterious to historians because North America did not have writing systems, and Cahokia’s population disappeared suddenly and mysteriously in the late 1300s. By the time Europeans found the site, even Native Americans knew little about it. 
What we do know is that a village was razed in 1050 to rebuild Cahokia on a grid, with a grand plaza and ceremonial structures built on two hundred huge, earthen pyramids. The population increased so rapidly—Dr. Pauketat writes that walking from the edge of Cahokia’s territory to the city center would have taken two days at its peak—that Cahokia must have drawn thousands of immigrants inspired by its religion, culture, or politics. 
That culture included human sacrifices, which took place when Cahokia’s leaders were buried on its pyramids. The idea that cruel leadership may have driven away Cahokia’s immigrants is one of many theories for its demise. 
Pueblos in Chaco Canyon. Photo credit: HJPD
We know what we know about Cahokia because Americans built a highway through it. The law that created the interstate highway system in the 1960s included funding to investigate archaeological sites that would be damaged, which meant scholars had funding and a mandate to study Cahokia. 
Discovering that the mounds were actually the remains of the greatest city in North American history didn’t stop the construction of the highway or the expansion of the suburbs, which destroyed many of the pyramids and left roads crossing and surrounding Cahokia. 
But what remained of Cahokia was already a state park, which UNESCO named a World Heritage Site in 1982, and the state built a visitors center dedicated to Cahokia’s history. Many St. Louis schoolchildren visit on field trips. 
Cahokia receives around 250,000 visitors per year, and tourists from Germany, France, and the U.K. sign the guest book. That makes Cahokia a modest attraction—over one million tourists visit the Incan ruins of Machu Picchu (despite quotas that limit the number of daily visitors), and 1.5 million tourists visit the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, Spain, which was one of the world’s largest cities in Cahokia’s time. 
Cahokia and other mound sites “have just never really gripped the imagination of the public,” explains archeologist George Milner. “People are more fascinated by photogenic places like Chaco Canyon.” 
The ruins of pueblos built by ancestors of the Hopi and Pueblo people in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, are stunning. But they draw only 40,000 tourists annually. (Chaco Canyon is not easily accessible.) Like at Cahokia, the number of visitors has decreased in recent years.
The exception to this trend of disappointing turnout is Mesa Verde State Park, which is home to the Cliff Palace and draws 550,000 annual visitors
Who Wants Tourists?
The tourism industry is not a bastion of free-market principles. 
Instead governments are active participants who compete for tourists’ attention and wallets. Governments do market research and marketing. Governments build highways to remote destinations. Governments provide security and regulate tour operators. 
You might suspect that few people visit Cahokia because earthen mounds are not that inspiring (although the Egyptian pyramids are really just piles of rocks). Or because the large pueblos and cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde and Chaco Canyon are remote (although tourists flock to isolated sites like Machu Picchu and the Valley of Kings).
But imagine if the Southeastern United States were today a country inhabited and led by Mississippians whose ancestors had built the earthworks that still dot the region. The Lonely Planet guide to the country of Mississippi would list dozens of operators that led tours of the ancient earthworks, and Cahokia’s ruins would be the can’t-miss attraction. 
“The main pyramid offers views of both the St. Louis skyline and the plaza where around 10,000 Cahokians once lived,” the guidebook would read, “and is the most popular selfie spot in Mississippi.” 
But in reality, this is how a National Geographic writer described the same view when he visited Cahokia in 2010:
I just can't get past the four-lane gash that cuts through this historic site. Instead of imagining the thousands of people who once teemed on the grand plaza here, I keep returning to the fact that Cahokia Mounds in Illinois is one of only eight cultural World Heritage sites in the United States, and it's got a billboard for Joe's Carpet King smack in the middle of it.
The Greek government loves to invest in the Parthenon, and Greeks love to visit it. But Indian sites are more likely to remind Americans of the Trail of Tears and treaty violations than appeal to their nationalism. 
“Cahokia doesn’t mesh with the narrative of what the U.S. was like,” explains Dr. Adrienne Keene, a Native scholar and activist. “We are taught that nothing was here, so Native people deserved to have their land taken away. There would be less excitement about making Cahokia a national monument: that’s how white supremacy and colonialism work.” 
The lack of enthusiasm for promoting Cahokia is evident on its website, which advertises a crowdfunding campaign for its marketing efforts: 
Due to the economic conditions of the State of Illinois and the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, no funding is available for public outreach, community events, and marketing. All of these activities are funded solely by the support group the Cahokia Mounds Museum Society.  
But even if Americans did invest in Native archeological sites and wanted to visit them, many American Indians might still feel wary about welcoming them. 
Camille Ferguson is the Executive Director of The American Indian Alaska Native Tourism Association (AIANTA). When we talk over the phone, she explains that many sites, unlike Cahokia or Chaco Canyon, are owned by tribes. And those tribes often lack the funding to build the infrastructure and provide the security a tourism attraction would need. 
“A lot of the native archeological sites that have been found have been taken advantage of,” Ferguson says. “Tribes are trying to do repatriation—to get [stolen artifacts] back.” 
This state tourism video shows some of the earthworks built between 1650 and 700 BC in Poverty Point, Louisiana. 
Theft is not the only concern; so is respect. 
Dr. Keene, for example, has several friends who portrayed American Indians at Sturbridge Village, a “living museum” in Massachusetts that re-creates rural life in 1830s New England. "Visitors thought they weren't native because they didn't look like a Hollywood Indian," says Keene. "Or people asked them about the Washington football team. The public still leaves with the impression that natives were savage or uncivilized. These experiences are hard on native people."
There are no residents of Stonehenge or the pyramids. But the relatively young ruins of North America are still homelands to many native peoples. 
“We call them sacred sites—not necessarily archeological sites,” Camille Ferguson explains. “The sacred sites are where the grave sites are. It’s something that hasn’t really been looked at as an attraction as much as something to be protected. I like to see ruins, but some of those cultures are very much alive.”
This sentiment pervades The Inconvenient Indian, a book by Thomas King. In the same way that Ta-Nehisi Coates explains in Between the World and Me what it feels like to be a black man in America, King explains what it feels like to be an Indian in North America. And to be an Indian, King writes, is to feel like an inconvenience. Because Indians were “supposed to” die out.
“The demise of Indians was seen as a tenet of natural law,” King writes. “‘The sun of their days is fast sinking in the western sky’... Problem was, Live Indians didn’t die out… [so] as the nineteenth rolled into the twentieth century, Live Indians were forgotten, safely stored away on reservations.” Americans are comfortable with seeing “Dead Indians” in traditional garb on packages of butter or in Western films, but a Live Indian in a suit seems “inauthentic.” 
This is why Camille Ferguson, speaking on behalf of many American tribes, is happier talking about new cultural centers than ancient ruins, which cement the idea that Indians have died out. 
“Tribes want tourism to be a way of perpetuating their culture,” she says, “not just putting it in a museum.”
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Sites like Cahokia and Chaco Canyon are underappreciated, but North America does have fewer ancient ruins than many parts of the world.
This is because the largest cities in the Americas were in Mexico and South America—the home of the Incas, Mayans, and the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, which, in 1519, Charles Mannwrites, caused Spanish conquistadors to “gawp like hayseeds at the wide streets, ornately carved buildings, and markets bright with goods from hundreds of miles away. They had never before seen a city with botanical gardens, for the excellent reason that none existed in Europe.”
But in North America, Cahokia was the lone great city. Why? 
According to Dr. George Milner, “you can find as many opinions [on that question] as archeologists.” The theory presented by Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, however, is that North America never developed the intensive agriculture to support permanent farms and dense cities.
But judging the natives of North America by the number of large cities, ancient, stone towers, and permanent farms is making the same mistake as the early Europeans. 
Photo credit: James Q. Jacobs
In 1491, Charles Mann writes that “Europeans tended to manage land by breaking it into fragments for farmers and herders. Indians often worked on such a grand scale that the scope of their ambition can be hard to grasp.”
Indians primary tool for reshaping their environment was fire. During the Civil War, American troops in Virginia’s woods could barely see each other through the dense underbrush. But when Europeans first arrived, they marveled that they could ride a horse straight through a forest. The difference was that Indians had once cleared out the underbrush with fires so large that the earliest colonists watched the burns like they were fireworks
Not every part of North America was transformed in this way, but in many areas, Mann writes, “Indians retooled whole ecosystems to grow bumper crops of elk, deer, and bison…. Millennia of exuberant burning shaped the plains into vast buffalo farms.” 
Much of what European explorers saw as rich, untamed wilderness was actually what Mann calls “the world’s largest garden.” 
“It was an altered landscape,” Dr. George Milner explains. “But Europeans didn’t recognize it as such.”
This is the irony of Americans' indifference to the country’s archeological sites. By 1492, American Indians had created a giant park whose beauty and riches inspired thousands and thousands of Europeans to cross a continent. 
They just failed to realize what they were seeing. And now it’s gone.
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U.S News And World Report Issues New Ranking Of Universities

by jonathanturley
unknownOne of the highest stress moments for academics these days is the announcement of the U.S. News and World Report rankings that continues to drive applicants and donors alike. The new ranking is out on undergraduate schools. Princeton University, Harvard, and the University of Chicago (tied with Yale) took the top three spots. The University of Chicago is particularly gratifying for many faculty members rallying around UChicago over the "Chicago Principles."

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Colin Powell, in Hacked Emails, Shows Scorn for Trump and Irritation at Clinton

By MICHAEL D. SHEAR

The disclosures ripped away the diplomatic jargon and political niceties of a former secretary of state with a sober, thoughtful reputation.



Eighteen Year Old Austrian Women Sues Parents for Posting Childhood Pictures On Social Media

by jonathanturley
mommiedearestbookIn Austria, the parents of an 18-year-old women have been sued by their own daughter for what is usually considered the domain of adoring parents: posting childhood pictures. The woman claims that her parents have made her life miserable by posting 500 images on social media without her consent. However, that suggests that parents are not the owners of such pictures when children are still below the age of majority. For years, I have told my complaining children to save whatever grieves them for another chapter in their eventual book, Daddy Dearest.

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tia



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